- 1 The stages of filtration during water treatment
- 2 Design and use of coarse filters
- 3 Coarse sedimentation filters
- 4 Disk Filter Processing
- 5 Cartridge Filler Materials
- 6 Ultrafine drinking water purification
- 7 Sorption filters for cleaning
- 8 Ion exchange species for water softening
- 9 Membrane (reverse osmosis) filter
- 10 Rules for installing filtration devices
- 11 Installation is carried out in the following sequence:
- 12 Reverse Osmosis Filter Connection
He quality, chemical composition, and purity of the water supplied by the central water supply, we make a number of well-grounded claims. They are justified by the deterioration of health, the rapid deterioration of equipment, and eternal problems with the pressure of water. And our physical and economic condition deserves attention, agree?
To combat these negative circumstances, there is a proven method – you need a filter for rough and fine cleaning. Depending on the tasks to be solved, both individual devices and a group of interconnected devices performing multi-stage processing are mounted.
Here you will find out what kind of work a particular type of device does, in what order they are placed, how they ultimately affect the quality characteristics of water. For a complete perception of information, we have attached visual illustrations and video guides.
The stages of filtration during water treatment
The first, most important step in water treatment is mechanical cleaning. Coarse purifiers extract particles from 1 micron and higher from water. They perform an irreplaceable function in the filtration process, without which further water treatment is impossible.
Rust, sand, clay particles, scale from old water pipes – everything is removed to get clear water at the exit.
Throughout the autonomous water supply system, it is equipped with a set of filters that perform various tasks of water treatment
- Natural water filtration
- Strainer for submersible pump
- Surface pump inlet filter
- Water preparation for transfer to the consumer
- Mud pipe
- Cartridge Filters
- Main filter in water supply
- Installation for water purification
Only after the first stage of pre-filtration, you can begin to eliminate organic impurities, compounds of heavy metals, chemical elements, and microorganisms. For this, ultrafine filtration devices are used.
More specifically, the need for cleaning from certain contaminants can be determined only based on the analysis results.
To make the right choice of a filter, it is necessary to determine why you need to install it:
- for filtering hot and cold water;
- what kind of contaminants should be cleaned;
- what productivity and volume of loading the filter should have;
- for what purposes – to protect plumbing and equipment or for drinking water and cooking.
It is also necessary to consider where the device will be used – in a private house, apartment, in a boiler room, or an industrial enterprise.
When buying a filter, you can check the data with the table and see if the declared level of cleaning meets the capabilities of the product. For example, often in the parameters of the device for fine cleaning indicates the possibility of filtering from impurities with a size of 100 microns or more, which in reality refers to rough cleaning.
Design and use of coarse filters
Coarse cleaning devices may have different designs, but the principle of operation is similar. Inside they have a removable element, which can be in the form of a metal mesh, disk, cartridge – it performs filtering. There is also an outlet for collecting contaminants. To remove collected debris, the device is periodically washed.
Additionally, devices can be equipped with a pressure gauge to help control the pressure in the system. A drop in water pressure may signal that it is time to change or rinse the cartridge, the mesh.
Filters can also be paired with a gearbox that lowers pressure, dampens water hammer. Some models have valves.
The general properties and differences of different models are in the following characteristics:
- Filter element. For rough cleaning, a metal mesh, a polypropylene fiber cartridge, a disk element is often used.
- The method of cleaning up accumulated dirt. The devices are divided into those that are washed in manual mode and self-washed.
- Possibility of use for hot, warm, or cold water.
All differences affect the functionality of the devices. Therefore, further – in more detail about their capabilities.
Such filters are installed on almost every water supply system, as they are durable and easily cleaned from accumulations of dirt.
Coarse sedimentation filters
Sedimentary filters include devices with a filter mesh. They are mainly made of a metal body (brass or stainless steel) with a direct or oblique branch located directly perpendicular or at an angle. Inside, along the water, a stainless steel mesh is placed.
There are also models of conical axial devices in which the casing is straight, and the filter screen has a cone shape and is located inside. Their design provides low hydraulic resistance.
The mesh can be made of carbon fiber, fiberglass, metal. A metal element is more easily deformed, which leads to a decrease in throughput, but it is easy to clean. Conversely, carbon fiber netting is stronger, but washing it can be difficult
They are installed on the site of the steam heating system in front of the circulation pump, in the water supply system – in front of the water meter. When installing in front of the pump, the parameters must be studied to prevent an increase in the load on the pump. Also, some manufacturers directly prohibit the installation of any devices in front of their equipment.
The filter in the form of a cylinder made of metal mesh is used for installation at the site of water intake from the source. It is used to prevent large debris from entering the water supply system and to prevent damage to the pump.
- It’s easy to remove the coarse water filters from accumulated deposits.
- Availability for cleaning
- Self-disassembling the sump
- Coarse filter mesh
- Actions after cleaning the filter
- Self-washing trunk devices
The design of the filter consists of a housing, a cartridge, a flushing valve. The metal or plastic case has two holes that connect to the water main. The filtering mesh from a stainless steel – removable, detains mechanical impurities from 100 microns.
At the bottom of the housing bowl, there is a backwash valve. Some models are equipped with a pressure gauge to monitor the degree of contamination.
The self-washing filter for rough cleaning is used for heating and plumbing systems. It removes impurities from 100 to 150 microns in size.
The principle of operation of the device is to pass the stream through the filter element – a removable cartridge made of stainless steel. Mechanical pollution is retained in the grid. Some of them remain in it, and some settle on the bottom of the hull.
A feature of self-washing devices is the ability to remove accumulated dirt without disassembling or unwinding the case. To do this, open the tap located at the bottom of the housing and drain the water into the tank or the sewer.
Particles of debris are washed away by the stream, and the device continues to work as usual. To remove old deposits on the grid, you can remove it and clean it more thoroughly.
The flush valve can be connected to a drain pipe connecting to the sewer; this simplifies the maintenance process.
Disk Filter Processing
The devices are used mainly for pre-treatment, prepare water for further cleaning, softening, and iron removal. They are installed in centralized and autonomous water supply systems, in heating plants, and are used in irrigation systems, including drip systems.
The filter element is a polymer disc, dressed on an axis and tightly compressed between each other. Their surface is covered with small grooves, the dimensions of which determine the degree of purification, comprising from 20 to 400 microns.
The cleaning process is as follows: a stream of water fills the housing and seeps through the flow grooves in the disks, and then is discharged into the outlet. Over time, dirt settles and accumulates on the surface.
A decrease in water pressure is a signal that the device needs to be cleaned again. The degree of clogging can be determined using a manometer.
Disk cleaning can be done in two ways – manual or automatic when connected to the sewer
Cartridge filters for fine and coarse cleaning
Cartridge filters are very popular because they have a relatively low cost and can be used to filter industrial and drinking water. They release water from large suspensions – sand, rust, and also from small particles up to 1 micron (0.001 mm) in size.
Cope well with the removal of turbidity. Devices with a throughput of 100 to 20 microns are used on main filters for rough cleaning, from 10 to 1 micron are used for the treatment of drinking water.
They are produced in the form of a flask with a cartridge made of polyester or twisted polypropylene thread. It is installed on the pipeline highway. After the cartridge has exhausted its life, it is replaced. The removable element is not to be washed and reused.
Often, models with a removable disposable filter are used in conjunction with mesh devices. First, the filter mesh is installed along with the flow of water, since it is washed and can be used repeatedly
Cartridge Filler Materials
For the manufacture of the cartridge using polypropylene fiber, woven polypropylene rope (cord), cellulose impregnated with polyester, nylon cord. But it was propylene that gained the greatest popularity because it has a low cost, is not exposed to chemicals, is not destroyed by the action of biological organisms.
Filters made of polypropylene cord use a special winding method, which allows larger suspensions to settle on the outside of the cartridge, and small particles remain inside the coil. They do not clog very quickly, but the more they exhaust their resources, the more they pass pollution.
For water supply, this is just a positive feature, because a dirty filter does not reduce the pressure in the system. Polypropylene fiber has a foamed structure that contains small bubbles; it is they that accumulate pollution. The disadvantages of the material are manifested in cheap, low-quality models.
During water treatment, an external filter ball is clogged in them, while the inner layer may remain clean, that is, not participate in the filtering process. But high-quality cartridges work all over.
A significant drawback of polypropylene fiber is that when it is very dirty, it ceases to pass water and significantly reduces the pressure of water. This may adversely affect the operation of pumping equipment.
The temperature of the use of products made of polypropylene 1 – 52 ° C. They can be used for cold and warm water. For the treatment of hot water, it is necessary to use cartridges made of cotton fibers impregnated with a special substance. They tolerate high temperatures (up to +93 ° C), the effects of microorganisms and various substances.
Ultrafine drinking water purification
After removing solid particles and turbidity from water during rough cleaning, it still contains many substances – dissolved impurities and harmful microorganisms, the presence of which makes it impossible to use it to quench thirst.
New generation fine filters can purify water to such an extent that it does not need to be boiled to get drunk.
Those wishing to receive information about filtering devices from leading manufacturers in the segment of the mass will find a lot of useful information here. We advise you to read an article on this issue.
Sorption filters for cleaning
Sorption filters are used to remove sand, silt, rust fibers, various impurities of 20–40 microns in size, including clay and colloidal iron. They have great resources and productivity and can accumulate a large number of suspensions.
Able to neutralize unpleasant odors, pathogenic bacteria. Some models of devices enrich the water with iodine and fluorine; in some, silver ions are used to neutralize harmful microorganisms.
For absorption, granular activated carbon or aluminosilicates are used. Activated carbon can handle substances such as chlorine, radioactive elements, pesticides, heavy metals, petroleum products, and dyes. Absorbs chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, saving water from excessive hardness.
Aluminosilicates neutralize heavy metals, organic impurities, establish the optimal acid-base balance.
Compared to mesh and disk, it functions more efficiently, removing suspended particles
Sorption filters can be manufactured for domestic purposes – in the form of jugs or tanks, and for processing large volumes – as trunk devices. Regeneration is carried out using a reverse current of water. A significant drawback of such filtering systems is the high cost, several times higher than the price of other installations.
Ion exchange species for water softening
Ion exchange filters are used to soften water, remove organic impurities. They are made in the form of a plastic or metal (stainless steel) case with ion-exchange material and containers for a regenerating (saline) solution. The principle of operation is based on the passage of water through bulk filters, where it gets rid of stiffness ions.
Different models of ion-exchange filters differ in performance, the volume of working tanks and components that are used as filter media
Efficiency depends on the chemical characteristics of water, filter material, and room temperature.
The main drawback of such installations is the complexity of maintenance, which requires the use of regenerative tanks, the disposal of used components, and the small filter life of about 200-800 liters.
Membrane (reverse osmosis) filter
The technology of cleaning using membrane filters is based on the passage of water through a large area of corrugated material with pores of no more than 3 microns. At the same time, the membrane filter holds impurities on the surface without passing them inside, which significantly increases the resource of the filter material.
Typically, a membrane filter is part of a multi-stage cleaning process and is installed after the coarse cleaner and charcoal filter.
Water enters the membrane filter through the inlet pipe with a sealing ring, using a high-pressure pump. After passing through all stages of filtration, it is divided into permeate (highly purified water) and condensate (solution of various impurities), which accumulates in the drainage collector.
The degree of filtration depends on the size of the pores in the membrane:
- up to 1 micron – microfiltration ;
- up to 0.1 microns – ultrafiltration ;
- up to 0.01 microns – nanofiltration ;
- less than 0.001 microns – reverse osmosis.
Reverse osmosis plants perform the highest possible filtration of water, purifying it at the molecular level, removing all microorganisms, salts of heavy metals, organic impurities.
After passing through such a filter, only 20-30% of mineral substances remain in the water, it becomes weakly mineralized, which can be interpreted as a virtue and a disadvantage.
The highest possible degree of purification of drinking water is carried out by a plant operating on the principle of reverse osmosis
- Drinking water preparation plant
- The composition of the filtration complex
- The degree of purification by reverse osmosis system
- Devices for collecting purified water and feeding it to a water intake
- Self-assembly cleaning system
- Numbering blocks with filters
- Replaceable filling of filter blocks
- Disadvantages of reverse osmosis systems
- Filter maintenance and cartridge replacement
Maintenance of the sediment filter involves periodic cleaning of the filter screen. Before starting work, you need to turn off the tap, then unscrew the revision cover, and remove the mesh. The frequency of inspections depends on the quality of the water, on the degree of its pollution. After cleaning, it is necessary to reinstall the elements and check for leaks.
To avoid the destruction of the filter elements, it is not recommended to use detergents containing solvent
To clean the disk filters, they must be removed from the line, open the housing, and remove the filter element. When removing the filter, the latch, which presses the disks against each other, loosens, and they open. Then all the elements are washed; for a more thorough cleaning, the device is disassembled and cleaned with a brush or sponge.
It is possible to carry out automatic flushing without dismantling the internal elements by starting the water flow in the direction opposite to the working
Polypropylene cartridge filters must be replaced after contamination. Manufacturers of different models on the package indicate the amount of water in liters that the device can clean.
Objectively, the filter life depends on the state of water in a centralized water supply system or an autonomous source. Therefore, he can serve up to six months. But if a water supply rupture or for other reasons, it can become clogged even in one day.
The need to replace a cartridge is assessed by its condition (degree of contamination). A signal may be a decrease in pressure in the water supply
In reverse osmosis fine filters, the replacement time for replaceable elements depends on the type of filler. For prefilters, it is half a year, for a coal postfilter – a year, for a membrane – 2 – 2.5 years.
To correctly place the replaceable elements, you must remember their original location. Before you start drinking water from a new filter or cartridge, you need to flush the system – drain the water after the first filling of the tank.
After the prolonged shutdown of the system for more than 3 months, and even after the replacement of replaceable elements, it is disinfected. If a rapid development of microorganisms and fouling of prefilters is observed in the filter, it is recommended to install an ultraviolet lamp in addition to the main prefilter.
Rules for installing filtration devices
With a multi-stage cleaning device, the first stage is always a filter that performs rough cleaning. When using several types of systems, first install a device with a large micro-pressure.
If you install filters of different cleaning methods in the wrong sequence, they will not be able to perform the task fully.
The installation of filtering devices in front of pumping equipment is not recommended. An exception is strainers with around zero resistance, which protect the pump from large debris.
The use of any other filters – iron removers, softeners, etc. – will increase the load on the pumping station and cause its premature wear. Installation, adjustment, and repair are carried out in the absence of pressure in the water supply.
Installation of sedimentary filters (mud collectors)
The oblique and direct clutch filters are installed in horizontal sections of the water pipe exclusively in the direction of flow. Oblique filters can also be mounted on a vertical pipe if the flow moves from top to bottom.
The direction of flow should correspond to the arrow pointers indicated on the filter. Improper installation will lead to poor throughput and clogged piping (+)
The filter must not be subjected to stresses from vibration, bending, compression, and stretching of the pipeline. When installing it, uniform fastening of the fasteners is achieved, if necessary, mount expansion joints and supports that reduce the load.
The correct filter location is the revision cover down. For preventive maintenance under the device provide free space.
The mesh filters, according to the insertion method, are divided into coupling and flange. The first type is installed on pipes of small diameters, and the second type is used for main water supply systems, interchanges in the water supply system of apartment buildings. On pipes with a diameter of up to two inches, threaded filters, the so-called American women, are used.
The filter that cuts into the water supply can have a different degree of cleaning and the nature of the filter, washed manually or automatically
How to install a reverse osmosis system?
Installation of the filter is carried out in an easily accessible place on a horizontal section of the water pipe with the bulb pointing down. When installing a water meter, the filter should be placed in front of it.
Installation is carried out in the following sequence:
- The anaerobic sealant is applied to the connecting thread, filling all the grooves with an even layer and leaving it to solidify for 15 minutes.
- Next, attach the fasteners to the filter, paying attention to the direction of the flow of water in the water supply.
- By attaching the filter fasteners to the wall, and making sure that the bends of the device coincide with the position of the pipe, mark the places under the holes.
- Drill holes and insert the dowels, then, using screws, screw the holder with the filter to the wall.
- To connect the filter taps to the line, cut the pipe and bend it to align its axis with the axis of the filter. So that the pipe does not break when it is bent, a special conductor is brought into the middle.
- Then, a crimp ring and nut are put on the pipe; the fitting is inserted (all the way). The compression ring is tightened close to the fitting, and the nut is tightened.
- Connect the fitting to the filter and tighten the union nut tightly tightening with a wrench.
- After installation, open the water, check for leaks. For ease of repair and maintenance, shut-off valves are provided on both sides of the device.
Reverse Osmosis Filter Connection
The installation of the treatment system consists of the assembly of individual elements and does not require special tools. Therefore, even a person who has never done this can install reverse osmosis.
The manufacturer recommends placing the filter under the kitchen sink. To comfortably collect filtered water, a separate tap is installed. To install it, you will have to drill a hole in the corner of the sink or the area of the countertop near the sink.
As standard, the reverse osmosis system does not have a pump to increase pressure – if necessary; it is installed separately. Additionally, the system can be equipped with an ice maker and replaceable elements for more efficient removal of fluoride and nitrates.
The reverse osmosis filter is assembled as a designer. The installation consists of the following stages:
- installation of a drinking tap and its connection to the filter;
- link to the cold water pipeline;
- installation of the ball valve of the tank and the drain clamp;
- commissioning and flushing the system.
For good performance and performance of the reverse osmosis filter, it is necessary to ensure a normal pressure in the system. If the water pressure in the supply pipe does not exceed 2.8 bar, it is recommended to install a booster pump.
It is installed in front of the first filter in the gap of the incoming tube. When using a pump, it is necessary to install a high-pressure sensor – it automates the process of turning the equipment off and on.